Classroom Management and Its Effects on Teaching-Learning Process In English Language in the Buea Sub Division South West Region

Sunday, November 20, 2022

Classroom Management and Its Effects on Teaching-Learning Process In English Language in the Buea Sub Division South West Region

Department: Curriculum Studies and Teaching

No of Pages: 78

Project Code: CST8

References: Yes

Cost: 5,000XAF Cameroonian

         : $15 for International students

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The focus of this study was to examine the effect of classroom management on the teaching-learning process in English language in secondary schools in the Buea Municipality.


Specifically, the study sought to find out how classroom rules and regulations affect the teaching and learning process, to what extent does punishment affect the teaching-learning process and how does positive reinforcement affect the teaching-learning process. Three schools and 120 respondents were used for the study.


Data was collected with the use of questionnaires administered to students. From findings, respondents pointed out that classroom rules and regulations, as well as positive reinforcement all have a positive effect on the teaching-learning process, thus if they are appropriately used, will help to handle student disruptive behavior and bring out desirable behavior as well as providing a classroom climate that foster learning.


However, the study revealed that punishment negatively affects the teaching-learning porticoes of English Language. It was also found out that punishment is not very effective as a classroom management strategy due to its numerous negative effects especially corporal punishment.


It was recommended that educational authorities should ensure that teachers especially student teachers should have a good mastery of classroom management strategies by making it of paramount importance during training.




Classroom management can be defined as the actions teachers take to establish and sustain an environment that fosters students’ academic achievement as well as their social, emotional, and moral growth. It is a term teachers use to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lesson runs smoothly without disruptive behavior from learner's /students. 

The goal of classroom management is not order for order sake but it's order for the sake of learning. Those responsible for classroom management are ultimately teachers. However, student play a very important role as well, students contribute to classroom management in the sense that they directly inform the structure and learning atmosphere as members of the classroom community and together with teachers, they create a culture of learning, accountability and inclusivity.


Classroom management is crucial in classrooms because it supports the proper execution of curriculum development, developing best teaching practices and putting them into action. The whole process of classroom management involves the actions and directions that are put in place by teachers to create a successful learning environment in an effort to ensure all students or learner's receive the best education.


Classroom management involves a wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused , attentive on task and to be academically productive during class.


Background of the Study

This background of the study will consist of the historical background, theoretical background and contextual background. The concept of classroom management started in the early 1970s. Classroom management was first invented by Jacob kounin. Jacob kounin is an educational theorist who focused on teacher’s ability to affect student’s behavior through instructional management.


Jacob kounin is a classroom behaviorist theorist; he started a psychologist at Wayne State University in Detroit Michigan. He began his studies in 1970 by writing decipline and group management in classrooms. His best known for two studies he did in 1970 that was based on classroom management. He wrote the book to discuss the effective and ineffective behaviors in classrooms.


Jocob began by first observing teachers in an everyday classroom setting to see how they handled misbehaving. He discovered by his findings that no matter how the teachers handled the given situation, the outcome was always the same. His conclusion was to prevent misbehavior before it even happens. This brought on his idea of having main points to follow to have successful classroom management.


The ripple effect of his theory came about while Kounin was teaching during mental hygiene class and a student of his was in the back reading a newspaper, the paper was completely open and covering the students face, he asked the student to put the paper away and follow along. This brought on other students to follow the same directions. 

He then concluded that if you call out one student in front of the class, it would cause other students to be refocused. John Dewey an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer was born on October 20th, 1859 in Burlington, Vermont United States .He was one of the most prominent American scholars in the first half of the 20th century.


John Dewey's theory recommends an interdisciplinary curriculum or a curriculum that lays emphasis on connecting multiple subjects were by students can freely walk in and out of the classroom.


In this way, students pursue their own interests and build their own method for acquiring and applying specific knowledge. His ideas have been influential in education and social reforms .Dewey considers two fundamental elements; school and civil society to be a major topic needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and polarity.


He believed that teachers should never pressure students to conform and that instead of going into a classroom with curtain or levels of expectations, teachers should accept students of all different cultures , religions and family backgrounds and within individual school regulations, teachers should respect students who are different or unusual attire .

As a philosopher, social reformer and educator, Dewey changed the fundamental approach to teaching and learning. His ideas about education sprang from a philosophy of pragmatism and we are central to progressive movement in schooling.


Dewey argued that curriculum should be relevant to student's lives. He saw learning by doing and development of practical life skills as a crucial tool to children's education. As expected, some critics assume that under Dewey's system, students would fail acquire basic academic skills and knowledge.


Classroom management can make or break your teaching. Todd Whitaker made this statement. Todd Whitaker is an American educator, writer, motivational speaker, educational consultant and professor and a leading presenter in the field of education.


He has published over 30 books on staff motivation, teachers leadership , technology, middle level practices , instructional improvement a principal effectiveness including the national best seller of the book titled What great Teachers Do Differently .


Todd Whitaker, Madeline Whitaker ,Good Whitaker  and Katherine Whitaker came together to write a book on classroom management. They created a guide combining sound research with practical wisdom so educators could have a classroom management resource written by teachers for teachers.

The book contains effective strategies for designing and improving your classroom management from group up. Each chapter covers a core aspect of classroom management and includes a foundational understanding of the concept.


According to the national comprehension centre for teaching quality, a significant body of research also demonstrate that classroom organization and the ability to effectively manage students behavior ' significantly influence the persistence of new teachers in teaching careers within this frame work it is clear that instructional theory and classroom management strategies are among the most important aspects of teachers education .


Classroom management theory is constantly evolving reasons being why there are key theories who stand out when it comes to modern education. Throughout the 20th century experts like B.F Skinner, William Glassier and Alfie John revolutionized the ways that teachers deliver education. The first theorist that will be discussed will be B.F skinner.


B.F Skinner's contribution to learning theory cannot be overstated. This work is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. According to him, changes in behavior are because of individuals responses to events or stimuli that occur in their environment. He says when a stimuli response pattern is rewarded the individual is conditioned to respond similarly in the future.

The key to B.F Skinner theory is ' reinforcement' or anything that strengthens the desired response. This comes in the form of praises, good grades and rewards or even a feeling of accomplishment. It should be noted that negative response /reinforcement occurs when a stimulus result in increased response when it is withdrawn.


Skinner's work in operant conditioning has being integrated into classrooms management and instructional development. Many behavior management system utilized today in classrooms are influence by his theories. Hussung and Lynch (2016-2022).


William Glasser another theorist who contributed to classroom management theory coined the term 'choice theory ' in (1998). His theory stars that all that all we do is behave. Glasser suggest that almost all behavior are chosen and we are driven by genetic to satisfy five basic needs. These needs are survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun.


In his theory, the most important need is love and belonging because connectedness with others is required as a basis in satisfying all other needs. Therefore, the classroom be a needs satisfying place, for students. Glasser's theory had created impact in learning in a variety of ways. It had being utilized in schools across the globe and has changed the ways that teachers deliver instructions.


The first aspect that he identify is teachers as managers who need to work effectively if they want to successfully teach their students. The role of teachers as managers requires them to guide students in understanding that it will and will have positive influence on their lives. They (teachers) can make this possible by developing a positive relationship with students and creating active relevant learning experiences that enable students and learner is to demonstrate mastery a success.


He adds that when it comes to lessons, teachers who practice choice theory work to make sure that students classroom activities are designed to satisfy the student’s needs . This should be done in other to allow learning to increase while diminishing disruption. Hussung and Lynch (2016-2022).


Alfie Kohns work critique many aspects of traditional education namely the use of competition or external factors as motivation. He maintain that societies based in extrinsic motivation always becomes over time. Alfie goes ahead to question the hierarchical structures at work in mainstream education. He argued that positive enforcement only encourages students to seek out enforcement that is more positive rather than learn.


He believes that the classroom emphasizes curiosity and cooperation above all and the student’s curiosity cooperation above all and the student’s curiosity should determine what is taught. He also argued that a strict curriculum and homework are counterintuitive to student's needs. When it comes to classroom management he believes that most teachers rely too heavily on extrinsic motivation rather than more intrinsic factors.

He suggest teachers keep cooperation in mind because when curiosity is nurtured, reward and punishment are not Hussung and Lynch (2016-2022). To implement his approach in classroom's teachers can allow students to explore the topics that interest them most. Students should be able to think and explore, write without worrying about how good they are.


In general, Kohn believe that there is too much emphasis on achievement rather than the learning process. He emphasizes that not all students learn at the same place a standard do not take into account. He believed in classrooms were the student t is at the centre of everything.


Contextually, Buea was the colonial capital of German Kameroun from 1901 -1919, the capital of the southern Cameroons from 1949 until 1901 and the capital of West Cameroon. In the mid-1920s, the government appeared on the education scene with more assistance and policy formulation.


The department of education established in 1926 worked hand-in-hand with the missions, and more schools were introduced. The first major change was the re-introduction of community schools as a response to the unforeseen increase requirement for secondary education. This demand came into being following the implementation of Universal Primary Education (UPE, 1995).


The implementation of UPE created unparalleled social demand for basic education. The increase in the enrolment in primary schools  resulted in the expansion of  Secondary  education  through  a  strategy  of  constructing  community  secondary schools in each Sub Division in Cameroon.  A circular was issued by the government  in  1994 to  initiate  a  ten  year  program for  the  expansion  of  secondary education. 


The program was  not  implemented  until  in  1996  when  it  started  and  was  to  be completed by 2005 with the construction of 79 secondary schools which were to be distributed  in  such  a  way  that  each  region  was  to  build  three  schools.  Essentially, community primary  schools  are  government  schools  in  which  both  local communities  and the central government have the responsibility to run  the schools( UPE, 1995).


The  Government through  the Ministry of Secondary Education and Vocational  Training ,with the help of foreign donors, members of the community, development partners, contributions  from  local  government,  government  through  internal  and  external sources took the initiative to start building community  schools all over the country in each Sub-Division  as pointed earlier.


To a large extent, secondary schools  supported  by  government,  community  contributions,  development  partners and local government contributions have provided education to children from poor families,  who  are  mostly  found  in  rural  remote  areas,  while  government  provided schools with financial and technical support such as paying teachers’ salaries.

Secondary Education  has  stipulated,  selection  of students  to  be  enrolled into  secondary  schools  are  made  on  the  ‘basis  of  a  pre-set  First School standard  cut-off  point  of  100 marks performance’  in  the   First  School  Leaving Certificate  (FSLC).  Students  enrolled  into  Secondary  schools from primary schools need  to  have  a  minimum  of  100  scores  in  their  First  School  Leaving Examination (FSLC).


It's commonly known that most students turn to have a cold feeling in learning the English language due to one reason or the other and this makes it difficult for teachers to handle and manage such classrooms very well . The Buea Sub-Division will be the case study or area of study and thus much concentration and emphasis will be laid on it.


Statement of the Problem

Classroom management is the process of ensuring the classroom lessons rub smoothly withy disruptive behavior from learners. The aspect of classroom management is and has always being a very difficult problem of teaching most especially when it comes to the teaching of English language.


In the early 1980s, the problem of classroom management has caused Mani people to live the teaching field. In 1981, the U.S National Educational Association reported 36% of teachers said they would probably not go into teaching if they had the chance to decide again. A major reason was negative student’s attitudes and discipline.

Classroom management is crucial in every classroom because it supports the proper execution of lessons or curriculum development. If a class is not properly managed or coordinated by the teacher, lessons cannot and will not run smoothly.


The aspect of classroom management is a problem that is faced by every teacher be it a biology teacher, economics teacher, a maths teacher and an English teacher. This problem of classroom management is a worldwide problem that has being in existence for many years and do teachers face seeing as one of the biggest challenge.


As we know, it is not easy to put a class in order. The problem which is of oath most importance is; the effect of classroom management on secondary school students academic achievement in English language in the Buea sub division south west Region of Cameroon. The effects here will be both the positive and negative effect on students’ academic performance.


Objectives of the Study

General Objective

  • The general Objective of this study is to examine the effects of classroom management on students’ academic performance in English language in the Buea Sub-Division South west Region.


Specific Objectives

  1. To elicit the views of teachers about classroom rules and regulations on the teaching and learning process.
  2. To assess the effect of punishment to the teaching and learning process
  3. To evaluate the effects of positive reinforcement on the teaching and learning process

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