Effective use of Instructional Media in the Teaching of Geography in Some Secondary Schools in Buea municipality

Sunday, November 20, 2022

Effective use of Instructional Media in the Teaching of Geography in Some Secondary Schools in Buea municipality

Department: Curriculum Studies and Teaching

No of Pages: 88

Project Code: CST8

References: Yes

Cost: 5,000XAF Cameroonian

         : $15 for International students

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The aim of this study was to find out the impact of instructional Media in the teaching of Geography in some secondary schools in Buea municipality. Three research questions, which include what, are the effects of textbooks on the teaching of geography in some secondary school in Buea municipality.

In what way do real objects affect the teaching of geography in some secondary schools in Buea municipality? In addition, how do audio-visual materials affect the teaching of geography in some secondary schools in Buea municipality? A survey research design was employing for the study. Sample population of the study made up of 55 teachers selected randomly from 10 schools within the Buea municipality.


The instrument used for data collection was questionnaires. Data was analysed using the simple percentage method. The results showed that instructional media develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes in students for them to perform better and later gain employability skills, that the use of textbooks alone cannot develop skills and knowledge in students, real objects are interactive tools that support exploration, investigation, constructing solutions, and manipulating parameters instead of memorizing and retaining a series of facts.


It was recommended that textbooks could not be avoided in the teaching learning process. Therefore, for the teaching of Geography to be effective in secondary schools, teachers must use a variety of instructional media alongside recommended textbooks. This will ensure that students develop the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes and improve student’s grades in the teaching learning process.





Geography is an important school subject at secondary school level in Cameroon and elsewhere in the world. Therefore, quality of Geography education is of great concern for the stakeholders in education. Geography as a field of study integrates diverse concepts and skills, which demands availability of a variety of resources for effective teaching learning.


The quality of Geography education in secondary schools is affected by several factors like quality of teachers, teaching methods, use of teaching materials, quality of students, management of the school, geography laboratory for students to mention a few. Teaching is an art, which helps to transmit information, ideas, values, and concepts to the students to bring about positive changes in the behavioural pattern of the learners.


According to Damar (2004) teaching is an act of organizing curricular and other resources to enhance learning. Teaching aid is one important resource, which supplements teaching to make it more effective. According to lbeneme (2000), teaching aids or instructional materials are those materials used in the classrooms or workshops for instruction or demonstration purposes by students and teachers.


This study examines the effects of instructional materials on the teaching of Geography in some secondary schools in Buea Municipality. The rest of this chapter examines the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the research objective, and the research questions. he significance of the problem, the research objective, the research questions, the significance of the study, the scope of the study, operational definition of terms and finally the summary of the whole chapter.


Background of the Study

Reiser (2001) defined instructional media, as the physical means via which instruction is presented to learners’ Instructional mediums are the different ways to present information to learners. To understand the history of instructional media. This study is going to focus on the evolution of learning while utilizing instructional mediums other than the actual teacher, such as chalkboards, textbooks, and computers.


Historically, in 1900's, teachers were the primary means in which instruction was presented to learners. However, in 1905, the first school museum was built in St. Louis (Reiser, 2001). School museums housed supplemental instructional materials that could aid teachers when teaching different topics. Increased interest in visual media and instructional films led to the visual instruction movement.


In 1910, the first catalog of instructional films was developed to be used in the classroom (Reiser, 2001). Thomas Edison predicted in 1913, "Books will soon be obsolete in schools. Scholars will soon be instructed through the eye. It is possible to teach every branch of knowledge with the motion picture.

Our school system will be completely changed in the next 10 years" (Reiser, 2001), As a result, five national professional organizations were established for visual instruction, five journals began to publish information about visual instruction, and more than 20 teacher-training institutions began offering visual instruction courses (Reiser, 2001).


During the 1920s-1930s technological advances increased interest in instructional media and as a result the audiovisual instruction movement began. In 1923, the Association for Educational Communications and Technology was founded (Reiser, 2001). In addition, by the early 1930s people believed, that due to the advances in radio broadcasting, that the radio would be a medium that would revolutionize education (Reiser, 2001).


Unfortunately, the radio did not have as big of an imper on instructional practices as audiovisual enthusiasts predicted in the 1940s, World War II led instructional designers to design and develop Instructional films that would train military personnel for combat (Reiser, 2001). Instructional films were also developed to aid US citizens that were entering the business and industry field (Reiser, 2001).


The films were successful because they could train individuals quicker without taking away training effectiveness. At the end of World War II, the German Chief of General Staff stated, "We had everything calculated perfectly except the speed with which America was able to train its people.

Our major miscalculation was in underestimating their quick and complete mastery of film education" (Reiser, 2001). Given the success of the military films, there was a renewed interest in instructional films for classroom use in schools.


Media comparison research studies compared how much students learned after being presented with instruction via a specific instructional medium, such as film and radio, with how much students learned through teacher-led instruction on the same topic (Reiser, 2001).


During the 1950s, leaders in the audio-visual movement became interested in theories and models of communication (Reiser, 2001). Authors of the models stated that when planning for communication it is important to think about each stage of the communication process. The process involved sending a message through a channel or instructional medium to reach the receiver of the information (Reiser, 2001).


In 1963, David Berlo emphasized that communication was primary, and that media was secondary. Communicating is essential for learning to occur. Instructional television made a huge growth during the 1950s as well. In 1952, the Federal Communications Commission set aside 242 channels for educational purposes (Reiser, 2001).


Unfortunately, some people believed that the instructional quality of some of the programs were mediocre. Along with teacher resistance, installation expenses, maintained expenses, and the mediocrity of the instructional television programs instructional television was discorded by the mid) Vots (Roser, 2001). By the early 1970s, instructional media still had not made a big impact on educational practices.


In the 1950x computers were utilized by researchers at 113M. The archers developed Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAT) author language and developed the first CAI program to be used in public schools (Reiser, 2001). In elementary schools, computers were mostly used for drill and practice or they were utilized to teach computer-related skills such as typing.


However, the widespread interest in computers as a medium of instruction did not occur until the 1980s. Since then the instructional technology field has expanded and changed (Reiner, 2001). The field is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Some technological advances have revolutionized how instructional technology is being utilized.


These modern instructional developments are utilization of the internet, distance education opportunities; learner centred learning environments, web 2.0 tools, virtual environments such as Second Life, wikis and blogs (Reiser, 2001). The history of geography is closely connected with the history of human society and its development. It is part of human interests, and precedents can be found in all ancient cultures.


However, as a science, geography is relatively young and many of its fundamentals appear during the nineteenth century (Buttimer & Wallin, 1999). For Kish (1978), Geography is as old as man's search for soil to dig for plantings, for a path that leads to water, for a trail to a place where hard rock for arrowheads may be found.


However, Geography is also as new as man's current search for ways to relieve urban congestion, to establish well-marked international boundaries, to describe and analyse vegetation patterns in remote parts of the earth (Davies, 1972).


While the first geographical references are from travelers describing the landscape and the people living in them, the first scientific studies are from mathematics and physicists interested in the environment.


It can thus be said that the foundations of geography are in the natural sciences, from the need to explain the physical environment and on the idea of the influence of this environment on humans and society (Chorley & Haggett, 1967).



Livingstone (1992) asserts that for generations, geography has been intimately involved in exploration, at least since the time of Muslim scholar-travelers, the Voyages of the Scandinavians, Chinese, und medieval Christian adventurers. However, it was with the European voyages of reconnaissance, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, that this first-hand knowledge of the world contributed most. Decisively to coherent body of geographical knowledge of the terrestrial globe.


The significance of scientific travel was mainly due to Alexander von Humboldt through his explorations in South America (Livingstone, 1992). The knowledge explosion occasioned by the European voyages of exploration brought new cartographic challenges and accomplishments. Although around the Mediterranean, Portolano Sea charts had been circulating for a long time and there already existed various Mappaemundi, the new lands discovered had to be reduced to paper.


Gerard Mercator solved some of the mathematical problems associated with transferring a sphere to a flat surface with his famous map projection (Davies, 1972). In the following centuries, geography's close links with cartography continued to be maintained. The map, as both graphic language and visual representation, continues to be used as a geographical tool, at present with the invaluable assistance of remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (Davies, 1972).


The first work entitled Geography was written in Alexandria, in the third century B.C., by Eratosthenes (Davies, 1972). From those beginnings the study of the earth as the home of humans, of earth processes, and of the distribution of terrestrial phenomena has continued to our day. Writings range from biblical tests and warty Greek explanations to the first formal statements on geography as a science, written between 1650 and 1850 (Davies, 1972)

Contextually, according to Tambo (1994), the current challenge of globalization and new technology requires new policy orientations to guide the development. selection and use of instructional materials in schools. These include textbooks, teacher's guide, audio visual materials, graphic materials, models and laboratory materials.


The basic teaching material for a developing school system like Cameroon's, remains the printed ones especially textbooks. In the past, textbook selection process was confusing, monopolistic, highly centralized and encouraged unhealthy competition among publishers (Tambo, 1994).


In order to improve the process of textbook supply and selection in Cameroon, a textbook committee of 30 members comprising publishers, editors, examination board representatives, donor agencies and representative of the civic society was established in 2000 (Tambo, 1994).


The committee received training in the selection of textbooks based on defined criteria. In addition, from textbooks, there is also the desire to get teaching materials (chalk, pens, papers, rulers, just to name a few) to individual schools at the beginning of each school year. The materials are assembled in one package for each school and put under the control of the school head supervision from delegates and inspectors of education (Tambo, 1994).


In addition to radio, Cameroon has set up another very important medium for education Cameroon Television. A variety of educational programmes like: Children's Corner, Thinking Time, How Things Work, Sesame Street, Tam-Tam Weekend, Cultural Programmes, Mister Word, including many others has already gained mass approval (Nkemnji, 2019). The print media is steadily growing. There are a few indigenous publishing houses now in the country.


Newspapers have provided resources for research, public expression and other educational pursuits. However, there is still a gross lack in the documentation and dissemination of our vast wealth of values, culture and knowledge (Nkeminj, 2019), In 2003, the policy to implement ICT in Primary. Secondary and Terunry Institutions was enacted (Decree No: 3475/D/63 of 17th June 2003).


The teaching of ICT in secondary schools started after seven years, that is, in 2010. During this time, there was no Higher Teachers Training College in the country with the Department of Computer Science to train Computer Science and ICT teachers (Nkemniji, 2019). What was observed was the use of teachers of other subjects and some private partners to teach Computer Science and ICT.


Teachers of other subjects were sponsored by their schools to be trained systematically to teach ICT and Computer Science. Then there were fewer schools, which began the program. Today with the introduction of Computer Science department in most of the Higher Teachers Training colleges, many teachers are now available to teach ICT.  However, this is not still enough as both students and parents (Nkemnji, 2019) are increasingly recognizing the importance of the subject.

With the ever-increasing population of the number of candidate, teaching, teaching and learning material continues to be a major concern. ICT that started in 2011 with 281 candidates and emerged 16 out of 17 subjects at the Advanced level, as of 2016 was 13 out of 20 subjects at the GCE Advanced level with a total number of registered student 3474 (GCI: Advanced Level Examination by Subjects statistics booklet, 2011 & 2016).


Instructional facilities and infrastructure pose a major problem to the teaching of ICT especially as students are supposed to do practical which adds up to their final examination results. From observation majority of the schools do not have Multimedia Centre, a few have computer laboratories while a relative small proportion has multimedia centres (Ndang & Agborbechem, 2018).


Within South West Region, less than 15 schools have Multimedia centres. The issue of availability of a stable source of energy (power) has serious implications on the implementation of ICT curriculum (Ndang & Agborbechem, 2018).


According to Nkemnji (2019), the evolving programmes of study in the schools demand more critical thinking by teachers and students; luckily, there is a press range in choice of instructional media and technology. Both teachers and students have to learn more, learn it more efficiently, remember it better, and apply what they learn more effectively.

There is increasing evidence; moreover, that the Cameroon, students can learn far more if learning conditions are made better. Unfortunately, many students tail to reach their learning potential. Results from various certificate examinations: F.S.L.C. BEP.C., C.F.T. CAP. G.C.1, to name but a few, are appalling. Schools like Sacred Heart College, Mankon and Bilingual Grammar school, Yaoundé and many others that do well in the certificate examinations are relatively well equipped.


This fact emphasizes the importance of a thorough look at both our curriculum and instructional technologies. A developing society like Cameroon in today's fast changing world requires keeping up to date with the new and varied instructional devises. The current knowledge explosion makes this a desirable task that must be accomplished, at all cost, else we may be left dancing in the dark for long (Nkemnji, 2019).


Statement of the Problem

Geography provides information about how people interact with the environment and with each other. Therefore, Geography is rich in material that relates to international understanding, multi-cultural concerns, and environmental education as stipulated by the National Council for Geographic Education (1994).


The scope of the subject Geography is wide and as such demands that it should be effectively taught by teachers for learners to understand. It should be taught with the use of instructional materials to supplement verbal instruction but this seems not to be the case in most schools is plagued with problems. 

In every secondary school classroom, there are a variety of learners with different categories. Some learners learn by seeing (visual learners), some by doing (Kinestatic learners) while others by hearing (auditory learners).


Geography being a practical subject demands that teachers should effectively use instructional materials to enhance the teaching and learning of the subject so that all the learners will be motivated to learn. From the observation of the researchers as a student and student teacher on practice, it w noticed that most teachers do not use appropriate instructional media in teaching Geography to their students.


Those who attempt using them do so irregularly and at most, times use inappropriate instructional media in their lessons. Therefore, most of the topics and concepts they teach are not related to real world situation, thereby making the teaching learning process boring. 

These have far-reaching consequence such as low mastery of subject's content, students being distracted during teaching, low performance in class test and exams, absenteeism from class and paying little attention when teacher is teaching.


Knowing how important it is to use instructional media in the teaching learning process, the researchers have therefore chosen to investigate on the effect of instructional media on the teaching of geography in some secondary schools in Buea municipality.


Objective of the Study

The following general and specific objectives have been formulated for this study.

General Objectives

  • The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of instructional material on the teaching of geography in some secondary schools in Buea municipality.

Specific Objectives

The specific objective of this study includes to:

  1. Examine the effect of textbooks in the teaching of geography in some secondary Schools in Buea municipality investigate the effect of real
  2. Examine the effect of real objects on the teaching of geography in some secondary schools in Buea municipality.
  3. Find out the effect of audio-visual materials on the teaching, geography in some secondary schools in Buea municipality.

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