The Effects of Women’s Triple Role on the Performance of the Children

Monday, December 5, 2022

The Effects of Women’s Triple Role on the Performance of the Children

Department: Gender Studies

No of Pages: 61

Project Code: GS7

References: Yes

Cost: 5,000XAF Cameroonian

 : $15 for International students

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1.2. Background to the Study

According to the International Training centre, Module on Gender, Poverty and Employment (2008), the concept of ‘gender roles’ refers to the activities ascribed to women and men on the basis of their perceived differences.


Gender roles are socially determined, they change over time and space and they are influenced by social, cultural, and environmental factors that characterize a society, community or historical period. These roles are accepted as ‘natural’ and internalized by girls and boys from a very early age, through the gender models they learn through their social environment.


In most societies, individuals are strongly pressured to abide by such models, not only directly by the family or the community, but also indirectly by the role models underlying the social fabric-the labour market, public policy, the taxation system etc, which often act as deterrents to social change.



In this line of thought, both women and men perform multiple roles in their lives, in the productive domain-which includes activities related to the production of goods for consumption or trade and income generating activities and in the reproductive domain-which includes tasks and activities relating to the creation and sustaining of the family and the household.


Typically, women in low income countries undertake a “triple role” in the society, that is reproductive, productive and community roles.  Reproductive roles include; childbearing / rearing responsibilities and domestic tasks undertaken mostly by women, including the care and maintenance of the workforce (husband and working children) and the future workforce (infants and school-going children) Moser (1995).



In this light, Moser (1995) equally highlights productive work as work done by men and women for payment in cash or kind. This includes both market production with an exchange value and subsistence /home production for actual use / potential exchange value.


Community roles is also said to include community activities undertaken primarily by women at the community level as an extension of their reproductive role. This could include the provision and maintenance of collective resources; water, health and education. Moser further states that community work is voluntary and unpaid and is undertaken in addition to the other roles.


However, it is vital to understand that these multiple roles of women affect the way they respond to children’s needs in the family as they tend to grow in the absence of their mothers’. The changes in family and work patterns have resulted to an increasing number of children being left alone to care for themselves.



The Kaiser Women’s health survey (2001) sampled nationally nearly 4,000 women between the ages of 18 and 64 in determining the effects of the involvement by women who work, and women’s care giving responsibilities to their children and the effect it has on children’s performance.


Statistics from the study showed that women’s multiple or triple responsibility had negative effects on the wellbeing and performance of children morally and academic wise in the society because women spend more than half of their time doing other things that generate income than family responsibility to children.


Young children’s cognitive, psychological and emotional development would be harmed if the young child was separated from the mother and the mother was not present to provide continuous care for the child’s physical and emotional needs. (Bowlby, 1952: Fraigberg 1977).


The absence or separation could be seen in the multiple roles that women play (reproductive, productive and community roles). Many women tend to focus their attention on their roles rather than on their children, this in turn negatively affects the children because they are left to care for themselves in most cases.


Aizer, 2004, Colwell, Pettit, Meece, Bates and Dodge, 2001 put it that there is higher exposure to accidents and injuries, increased risky and antisocial behaviour like delinquency, poor school performance and negative development outcomes for children in self-care.



Furthermore, empirical research suggests that increases in self care are associated with an increase in the likelihood that adolescents use illegal substances (Cohen et al, 2002) skip school, steal or even harm others.

 In the same light, Patterson DeBaryshe and Ramsey (1989) describe the process of delinquent behaviour as beginning with a lack of positive family interaction leading to school failure and social rejection.


Given the change in work patterns, family life is affected. Most women would automatically prioritize their work as against spending quality time with their families especially children. It inevitably affects the children’s performance.

According to B. Bower July 27, 1991, girls who spent unsupervised time hanging – out, reported more problem – behaviour such as smoking, drinking, alcoholism, stealing and more contact with trouble –prone peers.


Psychological and sociological literatures emphasize further, generally complementary, pathways through which parental investments may affect children. A mother’s absence during the first year of a child’s life could disrupt mother – child attachment and deprive the child of the stimulation that promotes cognitive development (Besky J. 1988).


Coleman J. S. 1988 finally concludes that mothers with productive work diminish social capital founded on women’s emotional investment in building relationship with their children at home.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to research on women’s triple role it is evident, the negative effects it has on the performance of the children. B. Bower July 27, 1991 outlines effects such as smoking, stealing, drinking and alcoholism.


Women more often than not have multiple roles of production, reproduction and community activities. Given these responsibilities, many children do not get as much attention as they need. Unlike before, women today enter the productive sphere to further provide for their families.

In most cases women are overburdened, and they would invariably neglect the needs of their children. Furthermore, research has also explained that mothers in spite of having their kids’ best interest at heart might fail to provide kids a safe emotional outlet.


They might not be enthusiastic to hear their kids’ issues after a hectic day at work. Kids in such cases resort to finding an outlet else where or get a feeling of insecurity that their mothers are not interested in their wellbeing.


This study eventually seeks to find out what particular effects women’s triple role has on the performance of their children.


1.5. Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 General Objective

  • The general objective of this study is to determine the effects of women’s triple role on the performance of their children in Bonduma village in Buea


1.3.2 Specific Objectives

Specific objectives includes

  • To determine women’s triple role in Bonduma village
  • To examine the effects of women’s triple role on the lives of children in Bonduma
  • To examine the demographic characteristics of women in the study
  • To determine how women cope with exercising their triple role.

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