Parenting style and its effect on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Buea municipality

Tuesday, November 15, 2022

 Parenting style and its effect on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Buea municipality

Department: Educational Psychology

No of Pages: 65

Project Code: EPY4

References: Yes

Cost: 5,000XAF Cameroonian

        : $15 for International students

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 According to Salami (2015), single-parenthood can be defined as when one out of two people who is responsible for the nurturing and child rearing is not available, and the work meant for two people, is now been carried out by only one person.

The author further added that single parenthood is when the mother or father looks after children on their own, without the other partner. Single parenting is a situation in which one of the two individuals involved in the conception of the child is being responsible for the upbringing of the child (Whitting, 2013).

Single-parenthood may arise when either the male or the female decides to produce and rear a child or children outside wedlock This chapter is made up of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research question (general and specific), research hypothesis (general and specific), significance of the study, justification of the study, scope of the study, operational definition of terms, and closing it finally with the chapter summary.

Background of the study

Historical Background

Historically due to parental mortality rate (due to diseases, wars, and maternal mortality). Historically estimates indicate that in French, English, Spanish villages in the 17th and 18th centuries one third of children lost one of their parent during childhood (Whitting, 2013).

In the 19th century, MILAN about half of all children lost one parent at least one parent by age 15years. Divorce was generally rare historically (although this depends by culture and era), divorce especially became very difficult to obtain after the fall of the Roman Empire, in medieval Europe due to strong involvement of ecclesiastical courts in family life (though annulment and other forms of separation were more common).

 In the year 1980 United States census reported that 19.5% of children were single parent households. About 16% of children worldwide lived in single parent household. In 2006, a single parent, 80% of which were headed by a female, headed 12.9million families in the United States. Areas where there is extremely high number of children living in single parent homes include Africa, Europe, Latin America. North America and Oceania (sander, 2001).

Nyarko (2007), with experience of separation, divorce or death do not perform well or achieve academically. When both parents are present, it implies that the child would obtain most care. 

However, when one of the parent is absent in a child’s life, a gap is created as the parent is absent in a child’s life, a gap is created as the child would lose the support that would lose the support that would emanated from that parent. 

Salami and alawode (2000) have asserted that, single parenting results from separation of various kinds, divorce, having children from wedlock or death of one spouse which leaves the roles in the hands of a single parent.

Researchers in the United States have consistently found effects of single parent families on the child’s educational achievement. For example, in reviewing research results from large longitudinal data (zill, 1996) found that, students from nuclear intact families had the best academic performance, while students from alternative family types such as stepparent families and single parent families performed not so well.

Children who are raised in a single parent family home risk of not reaching their full potential. However, performance of students from stepparent families became that of single parent families (sander, 2001)

Similarly, Han and Haung (2000) in their study on college attendance and education expenditure in Taiwan also found that, in Taiwan children in single parent families had a lower rate of attending college than that from intact families.

The research done by Amoakohene (2013) in Ghana on relationship between single parenting and academic performance of adolescents in senior high school, found that there are some problems that are exceptional, which create difficulties to raise children.

These problems include: bitterness towards the absent spouse, loneliness, poverty and insecurity about raising children alone without a help. The research concluded that academic performance and single parenting and negatively related, hence the more cases of single parenting the poorer the academic performance.


Conceptual background

Donkor (2010) examines that single parenting refers to the situation whereby one parent caring for the responsibilities of the child / children instead of both parents. He further states that single parenting has contributed immensely to destruction lives of many children because inability to provide their needs. 

Thomas (2018) states that single parenting is a person who lives with a child or children and who does not have a wife, or husband with live as a partner.  He further states that a single parenting may have either sole custody of the child or joint physical custody, where the child lives part-time with each parent.

Reasons for becoming a single parenting include divorce. Coontz (2017) explains that Single-parent families can be defined as families where a parent lives with dependent children, either alone or in a larger household, without a spouse or partner. 

There was a rapid and drastic increase in the number of single-parent families in the latter half of the twentieth century with many cases of Break-up, abandonment, death of the other parent, childbirth by a single woman or single-person adoption.

 A single parent family is a family with children that is headed by a single parent.  Adebola  (2013)  defines Single parenthood  as when one of two parents who are responsible for the nurturing and child rearing is not available and the responsibilities meant for two people is now being carried out by one person.

 Azuka-Obieke, (2016). Explains that Single parenting a situation when a mother or father who looks after his or her children on their own, without the input of the other partner. He further states  that  Single parenting have been on the increase, although the actual percentage is unknown, but practical experience and newspaper reports revealed that there is an increase of single parenthood in the country. 

Contextual background 

In Cameroon, the existence of single-parenthood was unknown and where they existed they are ignored as exceptional cases. However, nowadays, they are fast growing family patterns both inside and outside Cameroon. 

The maternal roles are that of child-rearing, home training and playing of complimentary roles, while the paternal roles are that of economic responsibilities and disciplines of children.

The child is morally, mentally upright and emotionally balances when the caring responsibilities are carried out by both parents.  According to Asah Jacob Fotoh, (2008), children from single parent homes are more hostile, hyperactive and aggressive in nature. Many of the problems that single parents have are similar as those for two parent’s family, but these problems seem more difficult to bear or manage when the home is being tutored by only one person.

For example, all children feel hostile towards their parents as they grow-up and try to be independent. But in a situation, where the anger and rebellion are all directed towards one person, it may seem worse, if there is only one to bear it, not for the two to share.  

The studies on academic performance among children suggest that children’s academic performance improve when both parents are actively involved in their education (Nyarko, 2007).

Some studies seem to neglect the issue of single-parenting as a variable. Generally such studies have tied academic performance of children to socio-economic status, parents’ educational level, student attitudes to learning, school environmental factors, housing and residential experience (Bowan, 2013).

For instance, in most ethnic groups in Cameroon, parental and maternal roles are clearly defined among the Bakwerians, maternal roles include children rearing, home training and playing complimentary roles, while that of paternal roles are that of providing for the family basic necessities and discipline of the children, when any of the parents are not available to fulfilled their responsibilities it may affects their children upbringing and may turn the children into wayward and academics failures. 

George (2015), define a single parent is a parent not living with a spouse. The single parent has most of the day to responsibilities in raising the child or children. This herculean task cannot be accomplished by an individual.   Ossat (2017) emphasizes that corroborated thus, single parenthood is the practice of raising children or building a family without a spouse or partner.

 As a form of building a family, single parenthood (single parenting) is now permissible in our society. In western society in general, the child ends up with the primary caregiver usually the mother or the father when there is separation. 

Some sociologists perceive the prevalence of single parenting as an alternative family form, rather than as (2003) states that the death of a partner was a major cause of single parenting and other causes include separation, divorce of a married couple, divorce of children that were in cohabitation, early pregnancy, etc.

However, children with single parents are three times more likely to drop out of school than children from two parent families. The demographic of single parenting shows a general increase worldwide in children living in single parent homes. A child from a home where the father and mother are present will be taken care of and will socialize in the best way possible.

This is due to the fact that the process of socialization depends on both parents playing complementary role in the upbringing of the child, such a child is likely to achieve self-actualization later in life, unlike children from single parent home who are likely to suffer deprivation and denial of some right and opportunities.

Statement of the Problem

In human development, it is physiologically expected that both parents participates in the life and growth of the child. This is because each parent has a key role to play for the physical, cognitive, psychosocial and emotional development of the child. In this case, each parent compliment the other (financially, emotionally and socially) for the proper development of the child under their care.

But from empirical observation in our society particularly Buea municipality, there has been a growing trend of sing parenthood, probably caused by divorces, separation or death of a spouse. This leave a single parent to bring up the child (children) without the other.

The child is left without the warm support and affection of the other parent, this leaves the child in a deficit as compare to other children who are having both parents’ presents. Such deficit can be financial, psycho social, emotional and even academicals. 

It is for this reason that the study of this nature to find out the effect of single parenting on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Buea municipality become necessary. It is on this backdrop that this study is aim to investigate more on the effect of single parenting and academic performance of students in the Buea municipality.

Objectives of the Study

General objective

  • To investigate the effect of single parenting on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Buea municipality.

Specific objectives

  1. To examine the impact of parental death on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Buea municipality.
  2. To investigate the effect of divorce on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Buea municipality.
  3. To find out the effect of parental separation on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Buea municipality.

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