The Influence of School Environment on Student Violent Behaviour in Tiko Municipality

Friday, November 18, 2022

The Influence of School Environment on Student Violent Behaviour in Tiko Municipality

Department: Educational Psychology 

No of Pages: 66

Project Code: EPY9

References: Yes

Cost: 5,000XAF Cameroonian 

         : $15 for International students

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Violence has become a major concern in secondary schools in Cameroon, in Tiko municipality as well and this does affect relationship among teachers and students within the school environment. Violence is attributed to many factors which include; biological, socialization, cognitive, and situational factors.

The purpose of this study is to determine “the influence of school environment on student violent behavior in Tiko Municipality”, that is the influence of physical, psychological and socio-emotional environment. The research took a survey design; instrument for the study was a close ended questionnaire consisting of 18 research questions to find out how the school environment influences student violent behavior.

Specifically the study aimed at measuring how the physical environment of the school, the psychological environment of the school, the socio-emotional environment of the school influenced student’s violent behavior in some secondary schools in the Tiko Municipality.

The simple descriptive statistic was use to analyzed this data collected from respondents. The findings of this study showed that socialization and cognitive factors are responsible for students behavior that is psychological environment of the school has significant influence to student’s violent behaviour; it also indicates the physical environment has minimum influence on student violent behaviour, whereas the socio-emotional environment of the school has no influence on student violent behaviour in secondary schools.




The school is an institution aimed at developing learners socio-emotionally, psychologically, and physically which of course includes aspects such as; interpersonal relationship, rules and norms, teaching and learning practice, organizational structures.

This is to say that, the school has a vital role in the development of the learners it houses and how well or poorly behaved learners may be in school and later years of life will give very much credit to the school, to other socialization agents as well. Thus, educational process of development occurs in physical, socio-emotional and psychological environment.

This chapter handles; background of the study, statement of the  problem, objective of the study, research questions, hypothesis of the study, justification of the study, scope of the study and definition of terms.

Background of the study

This part of the study will look at how the variables in the study has evolved or changed as years have gone by in the world and issues on ground in the particular area of the study. It is divided into historical and contextual background.

Historical background

Education has from centuries past has been based on philosophies of individuals and which was found to be best at the time. John Locke believed that human nature was malleable and formed by influences in the environment.

Education in the 18 century was based on teaching or molding minds of people considered to be blank slate. Schools were considered to give sensitivity to people like how to talk and act morally or virtuously. Here, parenting a child was instrumental and the home was a school. Later on, schools were reasoned out as set aside buildings divided into classes and made up of learners of variable ages, learning science, writing, reading, arithmetic.

In the African setting, the school was mainly focused on acquisition of skills before the colonial period and individuals would learn skill like farming, hunting, animal rearing, trading, weaving, carving, (Ashu,2016). Thereafter the colonial period, the system of education changed to the adaptation of the colonial masters and schools were built by mostly missionaries, some increased as each country gained independence.

In addition, school environment worldwide today is focused on physical conditions: density, privacy, activity areas, opens spaces, and, even green or vegetation areas. Noise, lighting and colours, temperature and humidity, decoration, and furniture, since they contain properties that have effects on people’s behavior;

In other words, school space is considered a didactic agent that helps to offer optimal physical conditions for the development of the teaching-learning process, as it allows for the creation of an adequate environment for the development of students’ abilities, foster their autonomy as well as teacher motivation to effectively teach learners.

On the other hand, Violence dates far back as AD 33 when the leaders of the Jews put Jesus Christ to dead through crucifixion because he claimed he is the son of the almighty God . A.D 61  when  some Hebrews whose leader at the time was Saul, the chief persecutor of the church, stoned Stephen a disciple of Jesus Christ,  God(Acts 7:58).

In early 1800s, when the Napoleonic wars were fought, more than one million deaths were recorded.  Looking at other periods, slave trade began around the 15th century until 1948 when the United Nations Organization (UNO) outlawed slavery and slave trade.

This period was characterized by high range of brutality as several wars were waged and defeated parties considered as criminals were sold to slave dealers who under brutal and harsh conditions transported the slaves to different markets centres in Europe and America. The harsh conditions left millions dead and horrible scars on the body of survivors.

Contextual background

Looking at the changes or modernization of the newly or recently constructed school infrastructures compared with those of the past. One can again theorize that these changes may not only be the result of increase in technological advancement as far as architectural designs are concerned, but as a result of reflections made.

A sounding introspection at the concept and percept of schooling and considerations on the school environment but most schools which were built in years passed. However, it hardly modified looking at different factors such as noise, space, physical conditions and external influences which could be affecting the learning environment

In Cameroon in particular, violence has prevailed in periods characterized with inter-tribal wars and tribal resistance of the colonial masters around the late 1800s. In recent years, the prevalence of violence has been mostly by terrorist attacks by the Boko Haram insurgent which has killed, kidnapped, members of the Far North region.

In addition, in the South West and North West Regions, similar violent acts have been carried out in schools, villages and towns, (The Guardian Post N0. 2045). The issues surround the study emanates from violent incidents like that which happened on January 14 2020 when a 15 year old male student stabbed Mathematics teacher in a fight between the two in class in Government High School Nkolbison in Yaoundé (

 Also, of recent a student of Ndoghem High School in Douala III subdivision of Littoral Region reported cut the jaw of classmate with a razor blade. This happened exactly a year after the incident at GHS Nkolbison. A similar incident, when a student of Government Bilingual High School Deido in Douala had allegedly stabbed a friend, (The Guardian post N0 2051 page, 3).

Furthermore, a  student by name Etsem Honore was recently arrested for coming to school with a machete threatening to kill the principle in his hostage on school campus if he was not given a hundred thousand francs, this was after he had been dismissed for drug and alcohol consumption(the Guardian post N0 2050).

Nado Nikel a student at the university of Yaoundé on January 27 2021  was stabbed on her way back from school after revision with two friends and in possession of fifty thousand, she was stabbed after resisting to giving the money (the Guardian post N0 2060).

According to a report by Voice Of America (VOA), Cameroon Teachers Protest, Seeking for Reinstatement of Corporal Punishment Amid Rising Violence (2020). Teacher in Yaoundé held strike seeking for the return of corporal punishment due to the reason that violence against teachers have intensified since the prohibition in 2015 as it is against Human Rights.

This protest came few days after a student stabbed a mathematics teacher in class, And after a similar incident happened, where a parent beat a teacher into coma for using corporal punishment on his son. These reports are the driving force behind the intensions of this study

Statement of problem

The school environment is a place dedicated for the development of learners physically, psychologically, socially and emotionally so that they become well-adapted humans in the society.

This can and will most likely occur in a safe environment free from every kind of disruptions. Persistent violent behavior of student over the years such as the unfortunate incident at GHS Nkolbison where a 15 year old male stabbed a mathematics teacher, GBHS Deido where a student allegedly stabbed a friend has raised questions of whether the school environment is safe for teachers and some learners who are usually the victims of aggressive behavior perpetuated by their peers and violence has become a problem that hinders the perception and reality of a school as a safe place for both pupils and teachers

The question of whether or not teaching and learning can occur effectively in such environment is another question begging for answers. It also raises the worry of the influence the School Environment plays on the students’ violent behaviors in secondary schools, particularly in the Tiko Municipality.

Objectives of the study

General objective of the study

  • Generally, this study seeks to examine the influence of school environment on student violent behavior.

Specific objectives of the study

  1. To find out the influence of the school physical environments on students’ violent behavior.
  2. To discover the influence of the school's psychological environment on students’ violent behavior.
  3. To find out what influence the school social environment has on students’ violent behavior.
  4. To determine how the school's emotional environment affects students’ violent behavior.

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